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The Real Secret To More Willpower: Be Power Hungry

The word willpower conjures things like laundry day, drunk texting and chocolate cake.  It is what motivates us to resist what we desire, and to tackle tasks we’d rather avoid, in the name of personal betterment. While the motivations behind washing your clothes or avoiding dessert seem rather clear, a new study found that fuzzier unconscious motivations can steer our actions, and that high-achievers and wannabe bosses may have more capacity to dodge cake, or do pesky chores if there’s a reward at the end.
Those who crave power and leadership roles have more  in the willpower department, according to researchers at the Technical University of Munich whose findings were published recently in the online Journal of Personality. Since  willpower is a finite resource, and easily depleted, the professors asked study subjects to perform two willpower-measuring tasks involving popular films, no prior acting experience required.
In the first, subjects reenacted a scene from Dead Poets Society, playing a domineering father character reprimanding his son, while a control group watched and took notes. Then the group was asked to will itself not to laugh or smile during a funny clip from the movie, Ice Age.
Those who acted the part of the bullying father were more likely to control their emotions and not laugh or smile when instructed not to than the control group, who had simply watched the role play.  Findings suggest what might seem obvious, that people who hunger for power or success have greater reserves of resolve to pursue goals than those who don’t. A politician shows greater stamina dialing for campaign funds because she is motivated by the prize of winning office. An actor may tolerate exhaustive grooming, and rigorous diet and exercise hoping to fit a part.
But here’s the catch: wanting a specific, finite accomplishment, like a part,  is not enough, a broader underlying desire to lead or succeed must exist, too.  In other words, think big, think ambitious.
While  the science didn’t reveal how those loftier desires are seeded, the researchers did make recommendations for how employers might optimize employees’ unconscious motivations and direct their willpower stores toward the right projects. They suggested giving leadership positions to those who thrive when they control people, and creative jobs that produce results to approval seekers.

Source: http://healthland.time.com/

Tackling Diet And Exercise Together Produces Best Results: Study

If you're trying to get healthy, tackling both diet and exercise is better than trying to improve one lifestyle habit at a time, new research suggests.
The researchers did add that if you need to start with just one lifestyle change, choose exercise. They found that changing diet first may interfere with attempts to establish a regular exercise routine.
The study included 200 people, aged 45 and older, who were inactive and had poor diets. They were split into four groups: new diet and exercise habits at the same time; diet changes first and starting exercise a few months later; starting exercise first and making diet changes a few months later; and no diet or exercise changes.
The groups received telephone coaching and were tracked for a year. Those who made diet and exercise changes at the same time were most likely to meet U.S. guidelines for exercise (150 minutes per week) and nutrition (5 to 9 servings of fruit and vegetables per day), and to keep calories from saturated fat at less than 10 percent of their total intake of calories.
The people who started with exercise first and diet changes a few months later also did a good job of meeting both the exercise and diet goals, but not quite as good as those who made exercise and diet changes at the same time, the Stanford University School of Medicine researchers said in a news release from Stanford.
The participants who made diet changes first and started exercise later did a good job of meeting the dietary goals but didn't meet their exercise targets. This may be because each type of change has unique characteristics, explained study author Abby King, a professor of health research and policy and of medicine.
"With dietary habits, you have no choice; you have to eat. You don't have to find extra time to eat because it's already in your schedule. So the focus is more on substituting the right kinds of food to eat," she said in the news release.
However, people with busy schedules may have difficulty finding time for exercise. King noted that even the people in the most successful group (diet and exercise changes at the same time) initially had trouble meeting their exercise goal, but did achieve it by the end of the study.

Source: Health Day News

Timing Matters To Make Diet and Exercise Changes Last

When it comes to making healthy lifestyle changes, which should come first — changing your diet or becoming more physically active?
Researchers from Stanford University School of Medicine report in the Annals of Behavioral Medicine that neither strategy was likely to help individuals meet healthy eating and fitness recommendations and stick with them for a year. For the best results, the scientists found that changing diet and fitness habits simultaneously made the most sense.
Previous studies suggested that providing people with too much information about nutrition and physical activity at once can be overwhelming, and tends to discourage, rather than motivate them to improve their habits. That, say the researchers, has led to the popularity of advising people to make incremental changes, and set smaller, more achievable goals to eat healthier meals and to become less sedentary. But, say some experts, continually making new changes can also drain energy and motivation, and lead to a drop in compliance over time.
So to assess how the two strategies fared in a head-to-head comparison, the scientists recruited 200 inactive participants who were age 45 or older and randomly assigned them to one of four groups that provided nutrition and exercise coaching over the phone. One group was instructed about making diet and fitness changes at the same time, the second group were taught about diet changes first, then fitness changes four months later, the third group changed their exercise habits first and made changes in their eating habits four months later, and the final, control group were not instructed about either diet or fitness changes but about how to manage their stress.
The researchers tracked the groups for a full year to determine which strategy was more successful in helping participants achieve the nationally recommended goals of 150 minutes of exercise per week, eating five to nine servings of fruits and vegetables daily and keeping saturated fat intake at less than 10%.
Compared to the group that did not receive any dietary or exercise advice, the three intervention groups made healthy changes in their diet. Those that changed their fitness regimen first also significantly increased the amount of exercise they received daily compared to the other groups after four months. However, at the end of the year, the group that changed both diet and exercise at the same time was the only one that met the nationally recommended targets for both exercise and nutrition levels, while those who worked on improving their nutrition first were unable to meet the recommended levels of fitness after a year.
The results raise interesting questions about behavior changes and compliance. The researches suspect that modifications to diet are easier to make than changes to physical activity, since meals are already part of a daily schedule, and exercise requires more effort to incorporate into an already busy day.
The findings show, however,  that pairing dietary and exercise changes may help to overcome some of the barriers people face in adding more physical activity into their lives. If folks change diet and exercise sequentially, the scientists say, they may end up placing more importance on the first set of behavior changes and feel less pressured to address the second set. Paying attention to both healthy behaviors at the beginning of a program, on the other hand, could help to give them equal priority, and therefore make it more likely that people will be able to maintain the habits over a longer period of time.

Source: http://healthland.time.com/


Exercise Alone Can Melt Away Dangerous Belly Fat in Diabetics

Just by increasing their physical activity, people with type 2 diabetes can lose fat that accumulates in the liver and abdomen and lower their risk of heart problems.
Doctors recommend that people diagnosed with diabetes get regular exercise, since physical activity can keep them at a healthy weight and help organs like the lungs, liver and heart to work at their best. But the details of how breaking a sweat influences the different fat deposits around the body are not so clear. There is increasing evidence, for example, that buildup of fat in the abdomen and deep in organs such as the liver and heart, can be more harmful than fat deposited just under the skin, since the more deeply embedded fat, known as visceral fat, releases hormones and other compounds that can affect how efficiently the body breaks down calories. But because most studies involving exercise also allow volunteers to change their diet, pinpointing how physical activity changes fat depots in the body has been hard to document.
To gather more information on this relationship, researchers from Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands turned to detailed MRI images to study 12 middle-aged diabetic patients both before and after they participated in a six month program of moderate-intensity exercise. The volunteers exercised for 3.5 hours to 6 hours a week, and participated in two endurance and two resistance training sessions, finishing up with a 12-day hiking expedition. Throughout the study, however, they were told not to change their diet and eating habits.
After the training, the researchers found that the participants’ heart functions remained relatively unchanged, but the second round of MRI scans revealed significant decreases in the volume of fat that surrounded the heart and lungs as well as in their abdominal area.
In a statement, the study’s senior author, Dr. Hildo J. Lamb from the Department of Radiology at Leiden University Medical Center said, “The liver plays a central role in regulating total body fat distribution. Therefore, reduction of liver fat content and visceral fat volume by physical exercise are very important to reverse the adverse effects of lipid accumulation elsewhere, such as the heart and arterial vessel wall.”
Because the study did not follow the patients for an extended period of time, the changes in fat distribution did not translate into measurable changes in heart function, but the researchers hope that with additional follow up, that would occur. And while the study was small, the results were encouraging since the participants were able to lower their levels of harmful fat simply by becoming more physically active — without changing their diet.
The findings also give researchers new insight into how different types of fat in the body contribute to diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Imaging techniques like MRI, for example, might one day identify people  at greater risk of developing the insulin resistance that heralds diabetes, or future heart problems by revealing fat depots wrapped around organs. That in turn could help more people to address their risk factors and prevent health problems by exercising more, or changing their diet, or both.

Source: http://healthland.time.com/

Severe Hearing Loss: Its Causes and Treatment

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), 2 to 3 children out of 1,000 in the U.S. are born deaf or hearing impaired. Most states offer newborn hearing screening, and if there is a hearing problem, an other test is performed within a few weeks. Early intervention is key. 

Any kind of early hearing loss can be a serious problem. It can undermine the foundation of language development, which experts believe is built during the early months and years of life. If undiagnosed and untreated, pediatric hearing impairment can result in major language development problems.

But it can be very hard to identify hearing loss until signs of speech and developmental delays show up -- many hearing impairments aren't identified until the child is 2. However, a variety of techniques exist to test hearing in children, regardless of the child's age. 

If you suspect that your child may have a hearing problem, talk to your pediatrician. Get your child's hearing evaluated as soon as possible. If your child has been diagnosed with a hearing impairment, seek help right away. Experts agree that the earlier children with hearing loss get help, the better their chances of reaching their full learning and developmental potential.

What Are the Causes of Hearing Loss in Children?

Children can experience hearing loss due to a variety of causes, including:
  • Otitis media. This middle ear infection occurs often in young children because their Eustachian tubes (the tubes that connect the middle ear to the nose) are not fully developed. Fluid builds up behind the eardrum and can become infected. Even if there is no pain or infection, the fluid can impair hearing if it stays there, at least temporarily. In severe and chronic cases, otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss.
  • Congenital factors. Some children are born with hearing problems -- either as a result of genetic factors or because of prenatal or childbirth problems. More than half of all congenital hearing problems in children are due to genetics. Hearing loss can also result when a pregnant woman develops certain conditions such as diabetes or toxemia. Premature birth also raises a child's risk for hearing problems.
  • Acquired hearing loss. A variety of conditions can trigger hearing problems in young children, including illnesses such as meningitis, encephalitis, measles, chickenpox, some forms of genetic hearing loss, and influenza. Head injuries, very loud noises, and certain medications can also lead to acquired hearing loss.

Signs and Symptoms of Hearing Loss in Children

As a parent, you are likely to be the first person to notice hearing problems in your child. Some early indications of a hearing problem include:
  • Not reacting to loud noises
  • Not responding to your voice
  • Making simple sounds that eventually taper off
A child with otitis media may also:
  • Pull or rub an ear
  • Be constantly irritable for no apparent reason
  • Become listless or inattentive
  • Not understand directions
  • Often ask for the television or radio to be louder
  • Have a fever
  • Have ear pain
Check with your child's doctor if you have any reason to suspect that your child has hearing problems. 

Diagnosing Hearing Loss in Children

Many hospitals routinely screen newborns for hearing impairment. Other hospitals only screen infants who are at risk for hearing impairment, such as those with a genetic tendency for deafness. A number of states have laws that require early hearing screening for all infants. Check with your pediatrician or hospital to find if your child has received a hearing test. If not, see how you can get one.

Treatment Options for Children With Hearing Loss

Treatment options for children with hearing loss depend upon the condition and degree of hearing impairment.
The most common types of treatment for otitis media include:
  • Watchful waiting. Because the condition often clears on its own, sometimes the initial treatment for otitis media is simply to monitor the child for any changes.
  • Medications. Your pediatrician may prescribe antibiotics or other medications for your child.
  • Ear tubes. If the problem persists and seems to be affecting your child's hearing, your pediatrician may suggest that your child receive ear tubes. These allow fluid to drain and can help prevent infection. If your pediatrician thinks your child needs ear tubes, he or she will refer you to an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist, also known as an otolaryngologist. Inserting ear tubes is a minor outpatient surgical procedure, but your child will have to have a general anesthetic in the hospital.
Other types of treatment for children with hearing loss include:
  • Hearing aids. Children with hearing loss can begin to use hearing aids when they are as young as 1 month old. Your hearing specialist will help ensure that your child is fitted with the most appropriate device.
  • Implants. Many children and adults are now getting cochlear implants, electronic devices that help with hearing. These are usually used for children with serious hearing problems, for whom hearing aids have not been effective.
  • Other hearing devices. There are a number of other devices that can help children with hearing loss with communication and learning. Ask a hearing specialist about other devices that might be appropriate for your child.
Under the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), children with hearing loss are entitled to early intervention and appropriate education from the time they are born and throughout their school years. Early intervention can help your child learn to communicate through speech or signing, or a combination of both.
If your child needs ongoing support and intervention in school, work with your school administrators to make sure he or she gets the help that's needed. As your child matures, it's likely that his or her education program will need readjusting. So you will need to stay involved to ensure your child gets the help he or she needs.
Parental support and effective early intervention have been shown to increase the chances that children with hearing loss will learn to communicate and to participate in school and other activities. This is especially true in children who use cochlear implants. Children with cochlear implants who have involved parents frequently show much better performance than children with less involved parents. The same is true for children who use hearing aids.
Here are a few things you can do to help your child -- and yourself:
  • Educate yourself. Web sites, as well as government and nonprofit organizations, can help you keep up with the latest developments and research.
  • Communicate. Seek out support groups and online chat communities for parents of children with hearing loss. These groups can provide information and a sense of community.
  • Stay in touch with your child. According to child development experts, some children with hearing loss feel socially isolated as a result of their hearing impairment. However, early intervention and the use of assistive technologies can reduce the chances of social isolation in children.
  • Take care of yourself and your other relationships. Getting help for children with hearing loss can be an all-consuming task. But don't neglect your own well-being or your other relationships. Make time for each other, stay in touch with friends, and pursue the activities you enjoy.
 Source: http://www.webmd.com/

Doc Dispels Common Myths About Head Lice

Although lice do not cause serious physical harm, they can result in a lot of emotional distress because many people still mistakenly believe they are a sign of poor hygiene, an expert explains.
Head lice bite into the scalp to feed on blood, but these bites are usually not painful. Still, a lice infestation can strike fear in families for a number of reasons, including the stigma of being deemed "dirty."
A lice infestation, however, is not a reflection of a person's cleanliness, according to Dr. Andrew Bonwit, a pediatric infectious disease expert at Loyola University Health System in Illinois.
"Personal hygiene and socioeconomic status have nothing to do with having or transmitting head lice. The head louse is an equal-opportunity pest," explained Bonwit in a university news release. "The infestation is usually a nuisance and almost never a serious problem in itself."
There are other common misconceptions about lice, Bonwit pointed out. In order to ease parents' fears, he dispelled the following myths:
  • Myth: Pets spread lice. "Animals are not known to carry head lice nor to transmit them to people," Bonwit said.
  • Myth: Sharing personal items spreads lice. "Although it's probably best not to share such items as combs, hairbrushes and hats, these do not seem to transmit the pest," Bonwit added. "Transmission of lice seems to occur only by direct head-to-head contact from one person to another."
  • Myth: Kids with lice should be sent home from school immediately. "The American Academy of Pediatrics does not endorse 'no-nit' policies that exclude children from school because nits are present," Bonwit noted. "In fact, even the presence of mature head lice is not considered a valid reason to exclude children, only a cause for prompt referral to the physician for treatment."
  • Myth: Lice carry disease. "Head lice do not transmit serious infectious disease," Bonwit explained.
Although lice often cause a big stir, they are tiny and often hard to spot. "Lice are very small, about the length of George Washington's nose on a quarter," said Bonwit, who is also an assistant professor of pediatric infectious disease at Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine. "The lice produce eggs, called nits, which become strongly cemented to the host's hair shafts."
Nits look like small, dark spots on the side of the hair shaft. Although the infestation isn't painful, it can be itchy, Bonwit cautioned. "Sometimes the patient has been so itchy that he or she scratches the scalp to the point of minor skin infections and even causing some enlarged lymph nodes on the back of the neck or behind the ears," he said. "While these changes may alarm parents, they aren't directly harmful." 
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that up to 12 million lice infestations occur each year in the United States among children aged 3 to 11 years.
"Parents and school staff may become understandably upset by outbreaks of head lice, but it is important to remember that if the problem occurs, it is treatable, although repeat applications of medicine are usually needed," Bonwit said.
The most common lice treatment is over-the-counter or prescription shampoos or lotions that must be applied to the scalp, left on for a specified time, then rinsed off. Often a fine-toothed comb is also needed to remove nits to prevent further infestation.
"The life cycle is about seven days from the laying of the eggs to the hatching, so a second insecticide treatment is recommended, after the first application," Bonwit advised. "If the treatments are used as directed, problems other than scalp irritation are unlikely to occur."

Source: Health Day News

Air Pollution a Leading Cause of Cancer

The United Nation's World Health Organization (WHO) has classified air pollution as a prime cause of cancer worldwide, especially in the case of lung cancer.
The WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has now placed dirty air in the same category of carcinogens as tobacco smoke, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and plutonium, BBC News reported.
According to IARC, about 223,000 lung cancer deaths globally can be blamed on exposure to air pollution. The majority of these deaths are occurring in rapidly industrializing Asian nations such as China.

Source: Health Day News

Too Much Texting May Leave College Kids Sleepy

College students in search of a good night's sleep may want to put some distance between their pillow and their cell phone, new research suggests.
However, study author Karla Klein Murdock, a professor of psychology at Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Va., took pains to make clear that her work does not draw a direct cause-and-effect between more texting and worse sleep, only an apparent association.
But the research did reveal that whether or not a student was experiencing stress, greater texting frequency correlated with key indicators of sleep trouble. That, she noted, took the form of sleeping less, taking longer to fall asleep, spending less time actually sleeping while in bed, experiencing disturbances throughout the night and/or feeling tired during the day.
What's more, among students for whom stress is an issue, frequent texting appears to make things worse, ultimately undermining their overall sense of emotional well-being and contributing to a higher risk for burnout.
"In other words, high levels of texting may exacerbate the negative psychological effects of stress," Murdock said.
At the same time, "sleep problems," she added, "may occur because students continue to use their cellphones at night, which pushes bedtime later and/or makes it difficult to fall asleep right away. Also, students may be awakened in the middle of the night when an incoming message makes their cellphone ring, buzz or light up."
Murdock reported her findings in a recent issue of the journal Psychology of Popular Media.
Considerable prior research (including a 2007 survey by the American College Health Association) suggests that many college students are significantly sleep-deprived, Murdock noted.
To explore texting's potential role in contributing to sleep disturbance and stress, Murdock focused on the texting habits of 83 first-year students (roughly two-thirds female) who were attending what she describes as a "rigorous, southeastern liberal college."
Three-quarters were white, and all were between the ages of 18 and 21.
In addition to asking the students to report their average daily texting routine, all underwent a battery of tests to assess their stress levels; the degree to which they had experienced academic and/or social burnout; and their emotional well-being as reflected in how happy, satisfied and interested in life they had felt over the prior month.
As well, all underwent standard assessments for sleep quality and signs of sleep disturbances.
The result: Higher daily texting lined up with poorer sleep, perhaps because students felt compelled to respond to incoming texts, no matter the time of day, Murdock said.
In addition, heavier texting activity was also associated with increased difficulties in coping with stress for those already experiencing it. And although the study did not specifically set out to examine the reasons for this, Murdock suggested that the lack of nuance, context and key visual cues that typifies texting could account for the increased vulnerability to stress that the activity appears to prompt.
"[And] text messaging is unique in the nearly perpetual access to social contact that it provides," she explained. "[So] during times of stress in social relationships, frequent texting may prevent a restorative or health-promoting pause in communication from occurring."
However, Murdock advised against concluding that texting raises the risk for severe mental health issues among college students.
"We measured academic and social burnout and emotional well-being," she noted. "None of these is really a psychological problem, like depression or anxiety. They are just different aspects of well-being. [So] I would say the bottom line is moderation in all things, including texting."
Tara Marshall, a lecturer in the department of psychology at Brunel University's School of Social Sciences in Uxbridge, England, also cautioned against reading too much into the study's observations.
"Although these findings have potential implications for students' well-being, namely that they should reduce their texting, especially when feeling already stressed, it's important to note that the findings are correlational and do not show that texting causes reductions in well-being," she said.
"There could be other factors not measured in this study that underlie both greater texting behavior and propensity for interpersonal stress, " Marshall added, "such as higher neuroticism or lower self-esteem. These personality traits could be responsible for the link with burnout, sleep problems and compromised well-being, rather than texting per se. Until these personality traits are taken into account, and controlled experiments demonstrate that greater texting causes sleep problems, the results of this study need to be taken with a grain of salt. "

Source: Health Day News

FDA Investigates Brain Infection-Gilenya Case

The FDA is continuing to investigate a possible link between the multiple sclerosis drug Gilenya (fingolimod) and a case of a rare brain infection in a European patient.
The patient took the drug for nearly 8 months before being diagnosed with the brain infection. The FDA issued an alert at the end of August to inform the public of its investigation.
The brain infection, sometimes fatal, is called PML (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy). The European case is the first reported in a patient who has not previously taken the drug Tysabri (natalizumab). Tysabri is already known to be linked with a higher risk for PML.
The maker of Gilenya, Novartis, issued a statement saying it had reviewed all available evidence and that the case of PML in Europe is unlikely to be linked to the drug.
Gilenya, approved by the FDA in 2010 for relapsing MS, is taken by mouth. It is one of three new oral drugs approved in the last 3 years. The other two are Tecfidera (dimethyl fumarate) and Aubagio (teriflunomide).
In MS, the immune system attacks the central nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves.
According to the FDA, patients should not quit taking Gilenya without talking to their doctor.
The FDA will issue its findings once the investigation is complete.

Source: http://www.webmd.com/

Best Superfoods for Weight Loss

Slimming superfoods

So-called superfoods are nutritional powerhouses that help build bones, prevent chronic diseases, improve your eyesight, and even keep your mind sharp. But did you know new evidence suggests these foods can also help you get—and stay—slim?

Read on for the top superfoods for weight loss, and how to pack them into your daily diet!

Black beans

A cup of black beans packs a whopping 15 grams of satisfying protein and doesn't contain any of the saturated fat found in other protein sources, like red meat.

Oats

 are rich in fiber, so a serving can help you feel full throughout the day. Just a half cup packs 4.6 grams of Resistant Starch, a healthy carb that boosts metabolism and burns fat.

Avocados

There's no reason to be afraid of eating fats—as long as they're the right fats.

Oleic acid, a compound in avocados' healthy monounsaturated fats (MUFAs), may trigger your body to actually quiet hunger. Stick to a quarter or a half of an avocado and watch that belly fat melt away. The creamy fruit is also packed with fiber and protein.

Salmon

Lean sources of protein help you feel full without adding fat. However, 50% of women ages 18 to 50 don't know if they get enough of this essential nutrient.

Up your intake with salmon; it's a leaner choice than red meat and is chock-full of MUFAs to boot. A 2001 study found that dieters eating a MUFA-rich diet lost an average of 9 pounds, while their low-fat diet counterparts gained, on average, 6.

Blueberries

Best known for their anti-aging effects, blueberries, while tiny, are a powerful figure-friendly eat: A 1-cup serving sets you back only 80 calories, and helps you feel full with 4 grams of fiber.

Broccoli

Cooked or raw, this cruciferous veggie is well-known for its cancer-preventing powers, but with a punch of filling fiber in less than 30 calories a serving, it's bound to prevent weight problems too.

Brown rice

Brown rice is a heartier, fiber-packed alternative to less-than-super white rice. A half-cup serving contains 1.7 grams of Resistant Starch, a healthy carb that boosts metabolism and burns fat.

Plus, brown rice is a low-energy-density food, meaning it's heavy and filling but low in calories. One study found that women who ate a higher-energy-density diet gained three times as much weight over six years than women eating a low-energy-density diet.

Source: http://www.health.com/


Mix-and-Match Boxing Moves for a Better Body

Punch off the pounds

Give unwanted inches the old one-two with these boxing-inspired moves from Crunch NYC instructor Christy Nacinovich. (They’re based on her new Sucker Punch class.)

For a top-to-toe tone-up, choose a move for the arms and shoulders, a move for the abs and back, and a move for the legs and butt, then do 2 sets of each move 3 to 4 times per week.

Arms & shoulders: Back fist

Stand with knees slightly bent, feet in fighter’s stance (left foot forward), elbows bent; bring right fist near face. Twist at waist to the right, bringing left fist to the right and down, straightening left arm.

Keeping arm straight, rotate upper body to the left while swinging left arm back beyond left side of body. Do 10 reps, keeping arm straight and long—think of it as a steel bar locked into place. Switch sides and repeat; do 2 sets.

Arms & shoulders: Pike push-up

Begin in push-up position with hands in a wide diamond (fingers pointing toward each other).

Bend at waist, lifting hips up and coming onto toes (walk them in a bit if needed) so body forms upside-down "V". Bend elbows to lower head toward hands.

Press back up; do 10 reps. For even more of a challenge, do 10 reps with right leg raised, then repeat with left leg raised.

Source: http://www.health.com/